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What Are The Components of Solar Energy System

What Are The Components of Solar Energy System?

Solar energy system take energy from the sun and convert it into electrical energy. But how can such a small and regular thing turn something as simple as sunlight into energy that can power your TV and appliances?

How does the solar panel work? To find out, let's first study the materials that make up solar panels.

What are solar energy system made of?

solar energy system are a bit like sandwiches. Several layers of different materials are stacked together to create something better than the sum of the parts.

However, the solar panel is more or less composed of the following six layers:



Solar cell


Back plate

One aluminium frame


The top glass acts as a protective agent for the more vulnerable layer under the panel. Although the glass barrier sounds absurd, it is the perfect material to act as a shield.

The glass used on the solar panel is very durable and can withstand major impact. In fact, many solar panels can withstand an inch of hail falling at a speed of 50 miles per hour. Therefore, although this kind of glass is not invincible, it will certainly be hit.

seal up

Under the agent glass is a layer of sealant, which bonds the glass with the underlying solar cell layer. This sealant is specially formulated to withstand high temperature and ultraviolet radiation. It also needs to be completely transparent to allow sunlight to pass to the underlying layer. The most popular sealant type in solar panel manufacturing is EVA (vinyl acetate).

Solar cell

Next is the star of the exhibition and the "meat" of the solar sandwich - solar cells. When you look at the front of the solar panel, you will see these. They are usually blue or black, or look like several small octagonal squares (single crystal panels) or several small rectangles (polycrystalline panels). Each solar panel is composed of several such cells.

These solar cells are composed of semiconductor silicon crystals. Continue our "tacky" sandwich comparison. Single crystal cells are like fresh roast turkey breast, and polycrystalline cells are similar to Bologna.

For single crystal panels, each solar cell is composed of one silicon crystal. However, the polycrystalline panel is composed of a plurality of silicon crystals fused together in the manufacturing process. Although monocrystalline cells are generally more efficient, polycrystalline panels are more affordable.

However, the solar sandwich has "double meat". Silicon cells are usually stacked one on top of the other.

Back plate

Under the other layer of sealant is the back plate. This is why there are white or black lines in the solar panel. Each solar cell is separated, and the bottom is the back plate.

Like a good piece of bread on a sandwich, the back plate helps keep everything together and protected. The back plate is made of a polymer or a combination of different polymers to prevent moisture and other unwanted materials from entering.

aluminum frame

The entire solar energy system is then wrapped around the edge of the aluminum frame. This can maintain the security and protection of all layers.


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